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The Future of viagra pills australia Refrigeration: R-718 (also known as water vapor)

With temperatures on the rise we're on the lookout for new technologies that can help us keep cool and i use it generic levitra for sale save energy too. One new tech is the buying viagra refrigerant known as "R-718", or more commonly "Water Vapor".

But you've got to ask: How does it work? Is it efficient, and if it is so cool why doesn’t everyone use it?

It turns out water refrigeration been around for a long time. In Europe they have used it for years, primarily driven by their high energy prices. R718 can be more efficient than our current refrigerants (R134A for example), but it takes a special type of compressor to make it work. The compressors used in Europe use titanium turbines. Expensive titanium is approved cialis fda used because R718 compressors have to spin very fast to buy levitra american pharmacy get the right pressures. In Europe where the energy costs are relatively high, R718 makes good economic sense. Here in the United States, with historically cheap energy it takes too long to recover the initial expense through energy savings. That is ’till now.

The Stratos Company LLC (of which I am president) is working with Prof. Norbert Muller of Michigan State University on the development of a novel R718 air conditioner that is very inexpensive. The key to success has been the development of a special turbine that is made in a very cleaver way such that you can substitute relatively cheap carbon fiber plastic for titanium!

No expensive metal, no toxic refrigerants and more efficient designs. Who knew that it was all possible with water?

Additional Info: MSU (PDF Link)

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Comments (7)Add Comment
written by Tim, May 19, 2007
I think that CO2 has more potential as a refrigerant than H2O.
Compare CO2 to Water Vapor
written by jsbarrie, May 21, 2007
From an environmental and safety point of view carbon dioxide (CO2) is an excellent
refrigerant. It is non-flammable, odorless and non-toxic (although it can cause suffocation
at very high concentrations), has zero ODP and low GWP.
The main barriers to the use of CO2 is that it generally results in low energy efficiency
because it has a low critical temperature (about 31.3oC). In certain applications this problem
can be alleviated through special heat exchanger design. CO2 also operates at much higher
pressures (around 100 bar) and has a substantially higher volumetric capacity than most
other refrigerants, which means that existing equipment designs, including compressors, are
unsuitable. Considerable development is taking place on CO2 for small refrigeration
systems, including car air conditioning and cascade refrigeration systems in low temperature
food storage and freezing plant.

From an environmental and thermodynamic point of view, water is probably the viagra england ideal refrigerant for applications above 0C. However, there is a major practical difficulty caused
by its high specific vapor volume which is around two orders of magnitude greater than a
typical HFC refrigerant. This means that an extremely large compressor is required. The
best compressor type is probably an axial or centrifugal machine, but suitable versions for
water vapour are currently special items, are very expensive, and have long delivery times.
Their high cost, large size and not being off-the-shelf items therefore rules them out as
replacements for general air conditioning applications at the present time. Future
development of commercial products, and possibly alternative steam ejector systems, holds
out promise of buy pills online tramadol water being a viable alternative in the longer term future.
written by Moses, June 19, 2009
I believe I have thought of a strategy that would allow a human powered refrigeration system to work practically. If so, this could bring human powered refrigeration to millions of people worldwide. If anyone is interested you may contact me.
written by Jason, June 28, 2009

The low GWP and zero ODP are not the only environmental qualities of using co2 as a refrigerant. Its high volumetric capacity can significantly reduce the material content of refrigeration systems, reducing compressor sizes and cialis express delivery pipe sizes.
Although a lifecyle analysis of a refrigeration system indicated that over 90% of indirect CO2 emissons came from the energy used, there is still a need to viagra uk buy online reduce the indirect emissions from the manufacturing of refrigeration plant.
Co2 is the only refrigerant that can offer this.
written by Brad Stonesifer, August 26, 2011
I understand the need to go "Eco friendly" with low ODP and GWPs, but lets be realistic, guys... neither CO2 or H2O can be classified at this time as effective refrigerants. CO2 can be reasonable in locations with low ambient temperatures and has a higher COP when used in a cascade system with, say, 404A. As for water vapor, just look at an enthalpy chart and you will see how efficient it is not.
written by ecube, March 01, 2012
I think that CO2 has more potential as a refrigerant than H2O . Check out our product the endoCube
an energy saving device for commercial refiegeration
don't have to compress h2o
written by ed, December 23, 2013
I don't see why we have to compress the vacumized superheated water vapor leaving the cialis daily in canada evaporator for a hypothetical vacuum water vapor refridgeration/AC system. Just vent it outside after it has absorbed heat. We would only need the so-called compressor for the suction side to create the low (near vacuum) pressure to pull the liquid water through the metering device (creating the vapor/liquid mixture in the evaporator) and on through the evaporator. After leaving evaporator the cheap discount cialis H2O would enter the suction side of the compressor as superheated water vapor for the designed low pressure. The compression side of the compressor would just be vented to the atmosphere. No need for compression or head pressure. We don't need to waste alot of energy to "recycle the refridgerant". Yes the system would need a steady stream of water, but not much due to the enormous liquid/vapor expansion ratio of H2O.

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