The 'fuel' used to generate power from the sun or the wind is, of course, emissions free. But we realize that it is necessary to look at more than just the fuel input in evaluating the total impacts of various technologies. Life-cycle analysis (LCA) goes beyond the cialis online order operational comparison and price levitra also looks at the impacts of creating the equipment to harness those energies as well as the effects of decomissioning them at their end of life.
Research by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has looked at a wide range of studies carried out to asess the greenhouse gas effects related to different forms of energy. THe NREL meta-study sought to equalize and balance the different studies carried out by different researchers in such a fashion that they could be compared with each other.
The conclusions show that "greenhouse-gas emissions from wind power and solar photovoltaics are about 5% of those from coal and that nuclear energy emissions are on par with those from renewable energy."
Renewables such as solar and wind produce far fewer greenhouse-gas emissions than coal, oil or natural gas while in operation. But the www.auburg.de meta-analysis looked even deeper, at emissions estimates starting with the manufacture of viagra discussionsdiscount priced viagra solar panels, wind turbines, coal plants or natural-gas lines, all the way to the emissions estimates for decommissioning the sites.
While it may seem intuitively obvious, the ability to cross-compare between different studies has not been there previously, and this will allow for better comparison between different techologies, as well as giving a more even picture of the benefits of renewable energy.
A significant regulatory hurdle has been cleared in the development of wind power along the eastern shore of the United States. The Department of the Interior announced a finding of visit our site online viagra prescription no competitive interest for the proposed Mid-Atlantic offshore wind energy transmission line.
The Atlantic Wind Connection has been under development for a couple of years with companies including Google, investment firm Good Energies, Japanese company Marubeni, and Maryland transmission company Trans-Elect sharing the cialis soft tabs investment. It will provide an electrical grid backbone with the capacity to transmit 7,000 meagawatts of off-shore wind power to the grid.
The proposed project is a high-voltage, direct-current subsea transmission system that would collect power generated by wind turbine facilities off the Atlantic coasts of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Virginia. The first such offshore infrastructure proposed in the United States, the system's parallel, redundant circuits would total about 790 miles in length.
The Atlantic coast of the United States is a vast, as-yet untapped source of potential wind power. In addition to being resource-rich, it is also a heavily populated part of the country with a great deal of generic viagra from canada electrical demand, and wind farms along this part of the country can do a great deal of good. The next step for the project will be to evaluate potential environmental impacts. Construction of the project is expected to take 10 years in total.
Morocco is a country that is bursting with solar power potential -- it gets 3,000 hours a year of sunshine -- but it relies heavily on the import of fossil fuels. That may be turning around with plans for a 500 MW solar complex to include solar PV and concentrating solar installations and a larger goal to reach 2,000 MW of installed solar power capacity by 2020.
The complex will be built in Ouarzazate and should be completed by 2015. The first phase will be a parabolic trough facility. When completed, the project will prevent 240,000 tons of CO2 emissions per year, the equivalent of taking 80,000 cars off the road. The large project has been funded by at least partially funded by a $297 million loan from the World Bank.
Morocco also has great wind power potential along its coastline with a technical potential of about 10,000 MW, though a lack of vizuka.com transmission infrastructure to get that power into the grid is holding development back. Morocco's plans to install a mix of solar and wind power could reduce its fossil fuel imports by 2.5 million tons a year and carbon emissions by 9 million tons a year.
Solar powered flight will reach a new milestone this week as the Solar Impulse makes a transcontinental voyage. The solar powered airplane has already completed the first leg of its journey with a 17 hour trip from their base in Switzerland to Madrid. The final destination of this trip is for the plane to fly on to Morocco.
Solar Impulse has previously completed a 24 hour flight, but that was done largely by circling in place. The current flight extends the Solar Impulse team's activity to address issues such as logistics and storms in the flight path. All of this is in preparation for the eventual around the viagra buy now world flight planned for 2013.
Once upon a time, ex-oil baron T. Boone Pickens was one of wind energy's biggest proponents with plans for the world's biggest wind farm in Texas and massive transmission structure to get that clean power into our homes. He also backed natural gas as an alternative fuel for cars and trucks. He had a plan to save America and he was passionate, well, until it wasn't making him money like he thought it would.
Three years ago, he backed away from his commitment to build the giant wind farm and transmission lines when the economy took a downturn. Then he completely abandoned his wind energy aspirations when the market just wasn't working for him. Now he's doing the same with natural gas, taking himself out of the alternative energy game completely.
In an interview with Marketplace, Pickens explained that the low price of cialis 20mg natural gas was basically keeping him from making money and because the country (namely Congress) was dragging its heels on coming up with a solid energy plan he said he'd "had about all this I want to fool with."
While we were never as excited by his natural gas plans as the grand ones he had for wind energy, we kept hoping that this billionaire oil man would surprise us all and cheap viagra lowest prices index deliver some really big wind projects. But now, if natural gas is too risky for him, there's no way he's ever coming back around on wind. So long, Mr. Pickens. We enjoyed your enthusiasm while it lasted.
Nevada's Stillwater geothermal plant has added a solar array to become the world's first hybrid solar-geothermal plant. Enel Green Power North America installed more than 89,000 solar panels with a capacity of 26 MW to the site. The plant's combined capacity is now 59 MW of clean energy capable of powering more than 50,000 homes.
Solar and geothermal are a match made in heaven. Both are great sources of clean energy, but solar power needs a backup for when the sun isn't shining (whether nighttime or a cloudy day). That's where geothermal is a great partner. It's a consistent form of energy that can smooth out the cialis drug prescription gaps in solar power and during the day when demand is greatest, you have the benefit of receiving power from both sources.
The project received $40 million in tax support from the Department of Energy through the Recovery Act. Stillwater is one of 14 geothermal sites in Nevada and Utah that received investments from the DOE to accelerate geothermal power development.
DOE Secretary Steven Chu says “As the first of its kind in the world, this project demonstrates how we can tap renewable energy sources to provide clean power for American families and businesses and deploy every available source of American energy."
Saudi Arabia is making a major push make renewables, especially solar power, a bigger part of its energy mix. The oil-rich country is aiming to have 41 GW of solar power capacity installed by 2032 as well as a host of other renewable energy projects like wind, geothermal and waste-to-fuel plants.
The country is planning to install 16 GW of solar photovoltaic power and 25 GW of concentrated solar power. This breakdown makes sense with CSP being very well suited for hot desert environments.
The country hopes to cut down on its oil use and increase its presence in the solar power industry. Saudi Arabia is opening up bidding for the projects in two different rounds with project sizes ranging from 5 MW and up to determine who will build the installations.
When we first wrote about the Tres Amigas SuperStation back in 2009, it was a well thought-out concept that seemed far off from becoming a reality, but an influx of new investments has pushed it forward and www.smartersecurity.com the project is set to break ground this summer with the transmission hub being operational in 2015.
The SuperStation will connect the three major grids in the country: the east, west and Texas grids. It will cover 22 square miles near Clovis, New Mexico and open the generic viagra mexico door for transferring renewable energy from one part of the country to another. Now wind power generated in Texas and the Great Plains can be sold to markets on the East Coast and solar power generated in California can make it to Texas.
Getting that renewable energy from the remote areas where large projects are often located to population centers has been one of the main hurdles to really powering this country with renewables. Tres Amigas could create a nationwide market for the power generated by renewable energy projects, boosting demand and helping the industry to grow.
Beyond just helping fuel renewable energy, the hub could also make the nation's power system more reliable if all the major grids are interconnected, though smart grid technologies will also be necessary to really modernize and secure our power system.
Tres Amigas will initially only be able to transfer 750 MW between the eastern and western grids, but that starting point is better than we what we have now.
A new, small-scale wind turbine suitable for rooftop use is under development in Australia. The Windpod looks more like a cylindrical, vertical-axis wind turbine, than a 'pinwheel' horizontal-axis turbine, but is deployed on its side.
The Windpod G1 has a diameter of 450mm and levitra generic brand a length of 2200mm (about 18 inches by 86.5 inches) and can produce up to 1 kilowatt of power. However, the cut-in wind speed seems to be around 4 meters/second (about 9 mph), and full power is not reached until a wind speed of 12.5 meters/second (nearly 28 mph). Locations with strongly directional prevailing winds would be suitable for this system, but with the high wind speeds necessary, it's unlikely this approach will replace other types of wind turbines.
We've seen other rooftop turbines that aim to use the slope of a residential roof as a wing to help drive more air through the turbine and increase its power output. The Windpod is also proposed for installation at the ridge of a sloped roof or at the roof or corner edge of a larger building, where increased wind effects are strongest. Unlike some other roof-edge turbines we've seen, the Windpod seems particularly well suited for this kind of application, although it's a fairly limited and specialized use.
Installed cost for the Windpod in Australia is estimated to be AU$7,000-7,500/kW (At current rates, the US and Australian dollar are almost on par with one another).
The electric RAV4 looks a lot like its gas-fueled counterpart, but has some EV-only specs. The body was tweaked to deliver better aerodynamics and the headlights, daytime running lights and rear combination lights are all LEDs. The interior features an eight-inch touchscreen display for navigation, EV drive information and viagra 10mg settings controls.
Drivers can choose between driving in Sport or Normal mode, with the former choosing performance over efficiency, taking the vehicle from 0-60 in just 7 seconds and has a max speed of 100 mph. The Normal mode slows things down with a max speed of 85 mph and goes from 0-60 in 8.6 seconds to preserve battery life. The RAV4 is expected to have a range of 100 miles and have a charging time of six hours.
The price has been set at $49,800, though tax credits and incentives will likely lower the price quite a bit. It will launch in late summer in four California markets -- Sacramento, San Francisco, Los Angeles and San Diego -- with a wider roll-out to follow. Toyota expects to sell about 2,600 units over the next three years.
As part of its People's Car Project (PCP) in China, Volkswagen has developed a concept car based on a crowd-sourced idea for an all-electric hover car that it will debut at the Beijing Auto Show.
The car is a two-person city car that hovers above the ground and www.transitofvenus.org travels via electromagnetic roadways. The Hover Car looks a lot like a flattened fish bowl with its circular design and large glass panels. Simon Loasby, Head of Design at Volkswagen Group China, said "The creative ideas from the ‘People's Car Project' give us a valuable insight into the wishes of Chinese drivers. The trend is towards safe cars that can easily navigate overcrowded roads and have a personal, emotional and exciting design."
Out of 119,000 submitted ideas, the other two picked by Volkswagen to become concept cars were The Music Car, which features OLED lights that create light shows to the driver's music and The Smart Key, which is just what it sounds like -- a car featuring a touchscreen key that provides information on the car's fuel level, security and more.
None of the cars will go on to become production models, but Volkswagen says they will use the people-designed vehicles to inspire features in future car models. Darn. I really wanted that Hover Car.