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Monitoring Pollution

China May Surpass U.S. Per Capita Carbon Emission Levels By 2017

A new report form the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency says that China's per capita carbon emissions are rising at such a pace that the country could reach, or even surpass, U.S. levels by 2017.

The report states that China's per capita carbon emission were at 2.2 tons in 1990, but have since risen to 6.8 tons.  That amount is cialis uk about equal with Italy and more than France.  During that same time frame, U.S. per capita emissions have dropped from 19.7 tons to 16.9 tons.

China became the world leader in total greenhouse gas emissions back in 2007 and has doubled its emissions since 2003.

This breakneck speed of development and increasing carbon emissions has caused environmentalists to buy no rx viagra say that China should now be considered a developed nation during climate change talks, which would means it would be expected to take on more responsibility in controlling carbon emissions.

via Yale e360


Evaluating Energy Sources by Human Deaths

In all the furor during the Fukushima Reactor Complex crisis, there has been a lot of discussion about whether or not nuclear power is a good option and, more generally, what kinds of power should be used to meet increasing demand. An unusual piece that was making the rounds on this topic was an article about the how to get viagra illegaly number of deaths per terawatt-hour (TWh) for different kinds of power production. It's an interesting metric to use to weigh different methods of generating power.

Nuclear power, interestingly, is at the bottom of the list, with only 0.04 deaths per TWh, while coal tops the list with a world average of just try! discount drug viagra 161 deaths per TWh. The numbers for this were calculated looking at not only at direct impacts from power station accidents, but also indirect effects, such as coal miners' deaths and deaths due to air pollution, as well. The list gets difficult, though, when it starts to ascribe deaths in supporting industries to only now viagra online no prescription the total. Steel and concrete are needed to construct wind turbines, and the calculations extend to include industrial deaths in the mining and manufacture of those components, as well as transportation deaths. While it's not unreasonable to ascribe those fractions to the overall calculation, it does make it start to get a bit tenuous.

Rather than take any of these numbers as hard and fast conclusions (any two reasonable people could have long arguments over any number of assumptions in these statistics), the general trends and relative scale of each could instead be given consideration in weighing options. Although nuclear power may have a low associated death rate, the economic cost of the energy produced this way is quite high, and there is a great deal of public opposition and buy cheap generic levitra NIMBY reaction to new nuclear power plants.

A lot of the investment in nuclear power goes to viagra online deals safety and security, rather than to producing power. The money spent on backups and redundant safety systems for a nuclear plant isn't increasing power efficiency. A nuclear plant might cost as much as $8,000 (or more) per kW of electrical generating capacity (though this number is speculative, since no new nuclear plants have been built for many years), while a wind turbine might cost $1,200 to $2,600 per kW. A wind turbine won't necessarily generate power as steadily as a reactor, but it's a lot less expensive to build.

Operating costs are another big, but rarely discussed element in favor of many renewable power systems. Actively operated electrical generating facilities need many full-time employees operating the get viagra fast plant's various systems. However, solar and wind power facilities do not typically need the same active management. While the construction and installation costs may be higher, the operating costs might be far lower.

Construction costs, environmental costs, operating costs, financing and regulatory costs all enter into the power generation equation. All of these factors need to be taken into account to make more reasonable decisions about power generation.

link: Economics_of_new_nuclear_power_plants (Wikipedia)

images: CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported by KEI at ja.wikipedia; Wikimedia Commons


Visualizing CO2 Emissions

May is a good month for commuting to work by alternate methods. Bike-to-Work Day is celebrated in many communities in May. In my town, we have a month long Commuter Challenge encouraging people to discover commuting alternatives. When I saw that the coworking space I am affiliated with had avoided about a half a ton of CO2 emissions, I started to visit web site pharmacy cialis wonder about what that volume looked like. The term 'ton' is used to mean 'a lot,' but how big is that when talking about a gas? A car weighs a ton or two (a current model Ford Focus has a curb weight of cheap tramadol no prescription about a ton and a half), but it's made from much heavier materials. CO2 is a gas, though, so it is viagra from india much harder to have an image of what it means to have a ton of CO2.

A little research and some calculation shows that a ton of CO2 will fill a volume of about 17,850 cubic feet at standard atmospheric pressure. To help visualize it, this is roughly the volume of a two story house, about 2,000 square feet in size (25 feet deep x 40 feet wide x 17.86 feet tall). Locate a house that is about that size, then imagine that volume filled with pure carbon dioxide; that’s what one ton of CO2 is.

And that’s just the carbon dioxide. If we are talking about automobile emissions, then there are all kinds of nitrogen oxides, uncombusted hydrocarbons, soot, and other pollutants that are being put into the atmosphere, as well.

To get a sense of larger volumes, the Hindenburg was about 6 million cubic feet in volume. That would be about 336 tons if it was filled with CO2. The New Orleans Superdome has a building volume of about 123.6 million cubic feet, which would hold almost 7000 tons of CO2. It would take more than 140 Superdome buildings to contain a million tons of CO2.

Another way to look at it is to think about how long it takes for you to put a ton of CO2 into the atmosphere. The EPA uses the figure of 19.4 pounds of CO2 per gallon of cialis viagra gas. So, roughly speaking, every 100 gallons of gas you use puts a ton of CO2 into the atmosphere. A car that is driven 12000 miles and averages 24 MPG in a year puts 5 tons of CO2 into the atmosphere.

An earlier version of this article appeared on the tramadol without rx GetDowntown blog.


New Map Shows Size of Forests in U.S.

A new map created by the Woods Hole Research Center shows the height, coverage and carbon storage levels of forests in the U.S.  The map was put together by using NASA satellite images from 2000-2001 as well as ground-level surveys by the USGS and USDA Forest Service.

The dataset for the map includes the forest measurements amount of carbon stored in vegetation as of 2000.  The scientists involved in the project will use the map as a baseline to monitor changes in forest cover and the carbon cycle.  This will allow them to make predictions about climate change and wildfire risks, help species conservation and even regulate the timber industry.

This is the buy viagra in france first map to provide canopy height and carbon storage information at this level of only for you order prescription viagra detail.  You can check out the full high-resolution map and cialis without prescription dataset here.

via U.S. News Science


Algae Could Be Key to Nuclear Waste Clean Up

Researchers at Northwestern University and Argonne National Laboratory believe that freshwater algae could become a key component in nuclear waste clean-up.

Studies done on Closterium moniliferum, a bright green pond algae, found that it could be effective at sequestering Strontium 90, one of the most dangerous radioactive materials created in a nuclear reactor and consequently present nuclear waste sludge. The material has a half-life of 30 years and is drawn to bone, carrying with it a very high bone cancer risk for those exposed to it.

Lab studies showed that algae removes strontium from water and stores it in the form of barium-strontium-sulfate crystals while excreting out any calcium, meaning it could naturally separate the highly radioactive material from the harmless substances in sludge, allowing clean-up workers to more easily locate and deal with the radioactive material.

The experiments used non-radioactive strontium (chemically identical to generic viagra uk isotope Sr-90), so the researchers aren't sure how the algae would survive in a radioactive environment, but algae has proven that it can withstand other harsh environments, so the scientists are very hopeful.

via Physorg
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